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@PhDThesis{Ponzoni:1993:AsSp,
               author = "Ponzoni, Fl{\'a}vio Jorge",
                title = "Aplica{\c{c}}{\~a}o do modelo SAIL no estudo da 
                         reflect{\^a}ncia espectral de doss{\'e}is de mudas de Eucalyptus 
                         sp. e de Aspidosperma sp",
               school = "Universidade Federal do Paran{\'a}",
                 year = "1993",
              address = "Curitiba",
                month = "1993-03-05",
             keywords = "vegeta{\c{c}}{\~a}o, Len{\c{c}}{\'o}is Paulista (SP), 
                         reflet{\^a}ncia espectral, Eucaliptos, Peroba, mudas, florestas, 
                         SAIL.",
             abstract = "O modelo SAIL ({"}Scattering by Arbitrarily Inclined Leaves{"}) 
                         foi aplicado ao estudo da reflect{\^a}ncia espectral de 
                         doss{\'e}is constitu{\'{\i}}dos por mudas de Eucalyptus sp. 
                         (Eucalipto) e de Aspidosperma sp.(Peroba) produzidas no viveiro de 
                         mudas da DURAFLORA S/A, localizado no munic{\'{\i}}pio de 
                         Len{\c{c}}{\'o}is Paulista SP. Foram elaborados tr{\^e}s 
                         diferentes doss{\'e}is, sendo um constitu{\'{\i}}do por mudas 
                         de Eucalipto, outro por mudas de Peroba e finalmente um terceiro 
                         dossel constitu{\'{\i}}do por mudas de ambas as esp{\'e}cies na 
                         propor{\c{c}}{\~a}o de 50% cada. Medi{\c{c}}{\~o}es 
                         radiom{\'e}tricas foram realizadas em cada um destes doss{\'e}is 
                         em diferentes hor{\'a}rios do dia, os quais caracterizaram 
                         diferentes condi{\c{c}}{\~o}es de ilumina{\c{c}}{\~a}o. Nestas 
                         medi{\c{c}}{\~o}es foram ainda considerados os {\^a}ngulos 
                         zenitais de visada de 0, 15 e 30 e o uso do radi{\^o}metro 
                         SPECTRON SE-590 que atua dentro do intervalo espectral 
                         compreendido entre 0,4 um {\`a} 0,9 um. Atrav{\'e}s destas 
                         medi{\c{c}}{\~o}es radiom{\'e}tricas foram determinados os 
                         Valores Medidos de Reflect{\^a}ncia (VMRs). Foram determinados os 
                         par{\^a}metros biof{\'{\i}}sicos (IAF e DAF) destes 
                         doss{\'e}is, os par{\^a}metros espectrais das folhas de ambas as 
                         esp{\'e}cies e do solo e ainda os par{\^a}metros 
                         geom{\'e}tricos de ilumina{\c{c}}{\~a}o. Estes par{\^a}metros 
                         foram submetidos ao processamento do modelo SAIL para a 
                         determina{\c{c}}{\~a}o dos Valores Calculados de 
                         Reflect{\^a}ncia (VCRs). Estes VCRs foram ent{\~a}o comparados 
                         com seus respectivos VMRs para a avalia{\c{c}}{\~a}o da 
                         din{\^a}mica dos VMRs, em rela{\c{c}}{\~a}o {\`a}s 
                         condi{\c{c}}{\~o}es de ilumina{\c{c}}{\~a}o e de visada 
                         consideradas, e do desempenho do modelo. Verificou-se que com o 
                         aumento do IAF, houve a diminui{\c{c}}{\~a}o dos VCRs na 
                         regi{\~a}o do vis{\'{\i}}vel e seu aumento na regi{\~a}o do 
                         infravermelho. Esta din{\^a}mica n{\~a}o foi t{\~a}o evidente 
                         nos VMRs devido {\`a} influ{\^e}ncia de fatores como sombras (na 
                         regi{\~a}o espectral do vis{\'{\i}}vel) e orvalho (na 
                         regi{\~a}o espectral do infravermelho). A a{\c{c}}{\~a}o da DAF 
                         sobre os VMRs deve ser analisada conjuntamente com a densidade do 
                         dossel e com as geometrias de ilumina{\c{c}}{\~a}o e de visada. 
                         Os par{\^a}metros espectrais das folhas (rho e tau) exerceram 
                         influ{\^e}ncia sobre os VCRs. A an{\'a}lise da influ{\^e}ncia 
                         dos par{\^a}metros geom{\'e}tricos da fonte e do sensor sobre os 
                         VMRs deve levar em considera{\c{c}}{\~a}o a densidade do dossel, 
                         a disposi{\c{c}}{\~a}o ou n{\~a}o das plantas em fileiras, bem 
                         como a orienta{\c{c}}{\~a}o espacial destas fileiras. Para 
                         doss{\'e}is densos e visada vertical, a diminui{\c{c}}{\~a}o do 
                         valor do {\^a}ngulo zenital solar, acarretou o aumento dos VMRs, 
                         principalmente na regi{\~a}o do vis{\'{\i}}vel. Na regi{\~a}o 
                         do infravermelho a comprova{\c{c}}{\~a}o deste efeito foi 
                         prejudicada pela presen{\c{c}}a do orvalho e de sua 
                         evapora{\c{c}}{\~a}o coincidente com a diminui{\c{c}}{\~a}o do 
                         {\^a}ngulo zenital solar. Para doss{\'e}is menos densos a 
                         plantas dispostas em fileiras, o aumento dos VMRs na regi{\~a}o 
                         do vis{\'{\i}}vel com a diminui{\c{c}}{\~a}o do {\^a}ngulo 
                         zenital solar foi atribu{\'{\i}}do {\`a} diminui{\c{c}}{\~a}o 
                         do sombreamento m{\'u}tuo das plantas e do solo. Na regi{\~a}o 
                         do infravermelho, houve tamb{\'e}m o aumento dos VMRs com a 
                         diminui{\c{c}}{\~a}o do {\^a}ngulo zenital solar. O efeito do 
                         {\^a}ngulo zenital de visada sobre os VMRs deve ser analisado 
                         conjuntamente com o valor do azimute relativo (psi). As 
                         diferen{\c{c}}as entre os VMRs e seus respectivos VCRs foram 
                         frequentemente superiores {\`a} 10%.Foi ainda viabilizado o 
                         procedimento de invers{\~a}o do modelo visando a estimativa do 
                         IAF, sem a obten{\c{c}}{\~a}o de resultados satisfat{\'o}rios. 
                         ABSTRACT: A canopy reflectance model called Scattering by 
                         Arbitrarily Inclined Leaves (SAIL) was applied to a spectral 
                         reflectance study of Eucalyptus sp. (Eucalipto) and Aspidosperma 
                         sp. (Peroba) seedling canopies, which have been cultivated in a 
                         forestry nursery of DURAFLORA S/A, located in Len{\c{c}}{\'o}is 
                         Paulista (SP) town. Three different canopies were studied. The 
                         first one was composed by Eucalipto seedlings, the second one by 
                         Peroba seedlings and the third one was composed by seedlings of 
                         these two species (50% of each one). Radiometric measurements were 
                         carried out considering different times of day, exploring several 
                         illumination conditions. The view zenith angle was also changed 
                         during these measurements. It was used the SPECTRON SE-590 
                         radiometer with the spectral range from 0.4 um to 0.9 um. Through 
                         these radiometric data the Observed Reflectance Value (VMRs) were 
                         determined. The biophysical parameters (IAF and DAF), the leaves 
                         and soil spectral properties and the illumination/ view geometry 
                         were used in the model processing in order to determine the 
                         Calculated Reflectance Values (VCRs). These VCRs were compared 
                         with the VMRs to evaluate the canopy reflectance dynamic and the 
                         model performances. The increase in IAF caused a decrease in the 
                         VCRs in visible region and a VCRs increase in infrared region. 
                         That dynamic was not so easily observed in the VMRs due shadow (in 
                         the visible region) and dew (infrared spectral range) influence. 
                         The DAF influence has to be analised considering both canopy 
                         density and illumination/view geometry. The leaves spectral 
                         parameters (rho and tau) were the most VCRs influential. The 
                         analysis of the influence of source and sensor geometric 
                         parameters in the VMRs has to consider the canopy density and the 
                         row orientation. Considering compact canopies and vertical view, 
                         as sun zenith angle decreased, the VMRs increased, mainly in the 
                         visible region. In infrared region this dynamic was not confirmed 
                         due dew and its evaporation during the day. For sparse canopies 
                         and plants oriented by rows, the increase of VMRs, in the visible 
                         region, with the decrease of zenith solar angle was attributed to 
                         plants and soil shadowing decrease. In infrared region, the VMRs 
                         increased as sun zenith angle decreased. The view zenith angle 
                         effect must be analised considering the related azimuth angle 
                         (psi) values. Differences between VMRs and VCRs were frequently 
                         greater than 10%. A model invertion procedure was developed in 
                         order to estimate IAF values, but with not sucessfull results.",
          affiliation = "{Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE)}",
            committee = "Disperati, Attilio Antonio (presidente/orientador) and Formaggio, 
                         Antonio Roberto and Garcia, Gilberto Jos{\'e} and Aspiaz{\'u}, 
                         Celestino and Dalmolin, Quintino",
           copyholder = "SID/SCD",
         englishtitle = "Application of the SAIL model on the study of spectral reflectance 
                         canopies of Eucalyptus sp. seedlings and Aspidosperma sp.",
                label = "6626",
             language = "pt",
                pages = "206",
           targetfile = "publicacao.pdf",
        urlaccessdate = "2020, Oct. 20"
}


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